I ran across this error the other day while configuring the Newsfeed for my sharepoint 2013 site.
I found a solution at this blog post, though the symptoms were slightly different, the fix was the same..
The issue was that the app pool for my user profile application and the web application were using different domain accounts. The domain account for the user Profile Service needs access to the User Profile application for the feed to show properly
I went into Central Admin–> Manage Service Applications.
Highlight user profile service, click Permissions on the ribbon
Add the rights. The only option that seemed to be available was full control.
once that was done, the newsfeed began to work properly